History of Early Modern Philosophy Reading List

Table of Contents

Medieval - Renaissance Period (500-1600 ce)

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite 5th c. ce Syria/Unknown

  • Chronicle (Known Also as the Chronicle of Zuqnin). Part III
  • (anthology) Paul Rorem Pseudo-Dionysius: A Commentary on the Texts and an Introduction to Their Influence

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus 477-524 ce Italy (Rome)

  • Consolation of Philosophy. 525

Philoponus, John 490-570 ce Egypt (Byzantine)

  • On Aristotle physics 1.4-9
  • On Aristotle Physics 4.1-5
  • On Aristotle Physics 4.10-14
  • On Aristotle posterior analytics 1.1-8
  • On Aristotle Posterior Analytics 1.9-18
  • On Aristotle Posterior Analytics 1.19-34
  • On Aristotle “On Coming to be and Perishing 2.5-11”
  • against Aristotle on the eternity of the world
  • Against Proclus on the Eternity of the World 1-5
  • Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 6-8
  • Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11
  • On Aristotle on the Soul 1.1-2
  • On Aristotle on the soul 3.9-13. with Stephanus on Aristotle on interpretation

Eriugena, John Scotus 815-877 ce Ireland

  • Periphyseon, On the Division of Nature. 860-867

Al-Kindi 801-873 ce Iraq

Peter Pormann; Syed Nomanul Haq; Peter Adamson, eds. The Philosophical Works of Al-Kindi

Al-Farabi 872-950 ce Afghanistan

  • Short Commentary on Aristotle’s Prior Analytics
  • Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle’s De Interpretatione

Al-Haytham, Ibn (Alhazen) 965-1040 ce Iraq/Egypt

  • On Direct Vision, books I-III
  • on image formation and distortion in mirrors
  • on the principles of reflection

Avicenna 980-1037 ce Iran

  • The Book of Healing 1014-1020
  • Essay on the Secret of Destiny
  • The Book of Scientific Knowledge
  • The Book of Salvation

Gabirol, Solomon ibn 1021-1070 ce Spain

  • The improvement of the moral qualities

Al-Ghazali 1058-1111 ce Persia

  • The Incoherence of the Philosophers
  • Moderation in Belief
  • Abstinence In Islam

Averroes, Ibn Rushd 1126-1198 ce Spain

  • Tahafut al Tahafut, The Incoherence of the Incoherence vols. I-II 1198
  • The “Decisive Treatise” 1198
  • The Attitude of Islam Towards Science and Philosophy
  • De substantia orbis
  • on Plato’s Republic
  • Middle Commentaries on Aristotle’s “Categories” and “De Interpretatione”
  • Metaphysics
  • On Aristotle’s “Metaphysics”, “Epitome” (Scientia Graeco-Arabica)
  • Three Short Commentaries on Aristotle’s “Topics”, “Rhetoric”, and “Poetics”
  • Long Commentary on the de Anima of Aristotle

Maimonides 1135-1204 ce Spain/Egypt

  • The Guide of the Perplexed
  • The Preservation of Youth : Essays once Health

Aquinas, Thomas 1225-1274 ce Italy

  • On Being and Essence 1252-1256
  • Disputed Questions on Truth 1256-1259
  • Contra Errores Graecorum 1263
  • Disputed Questions on the Power of God 1259-1268
  • Commentary on Aristotle’s De anima 1268
  • On the Unity of the Intellect against the Averroists 1270
  • Commentary on the Gospel of John 1269-1272
  • Commentary on Aristotle’s On the Heavens and Earth 1272-1273
  • Summa Theologica. 1265-1274

Scotus, Duns 1266-1308 ce England

  • A Treatise on God as First Principle
  • God and Creatures. The Quodlibetal Questions
  • The Will and Morality
  • Philosophical Writings
  • Contingency and Freedom
  • Questions on the Metaphysics of Aristotle by John Duns Scotus - 1298
  • Questions on Aristotle’s Categories
  • Time and Existence: The Questions on Aristotle’s “De interpretatione”

William of Ockham 1287-1347 ce England

  • Philosophical Writings - 1319-1321
  • Predestination, God’s Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents - 1322
  • Theory of Terms Summa Logicae - 1323
  • Theory of Propositions Summa Logicae - 1323
  • Demonstration and Scientific Knowledge Summa Logicae 1323

Nicholas of Cusa 1401-1464 ce Germany

  • On learned ignorance 1440

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni 1463-1494 ce Italy

  • Oration on the Dignity of Man 1486
  • De animae immortalitate 1541
  • On Being and the One 1557

Erasmus, Desiderius 1466-1536 ce Netherlands

  • In Praise of Folly. 1511

More, Thomas 1478-1535 ce England

  • Utopia. 1516

Machiavelli, Niccolò 1469-1527 ce Italy

  • The Prince 1532
  • The Discourses on Livy 1517(1531)
  • The Art of War 1520

Montaigne, Michel de 1533-1592 ce France

  • Essays 1580


Early Modern Period (c. 1600-1820 ce)

Bacon, Francis 1561-1626 ce England

  • Essays - 1597,1612,1625
  • Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human - 1605
  • The New Organon (Novum Organum) - 1620
  • New Atlantis - 1627

Kepler, Johannes 1571-1630 ce Germany - astronomy

  • New Astronomy 1609
  • The Harmony of the World 1619
  • Optics: Paralipomena to Witelo & Optical Part of Astronomy

Galilei, Galileo 1564-1642 ce Italy

  • Discourse on the Tides 1616
  • The Assayer 1623
  • Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 1632
  • Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences 1638

Grotius, Hugo 1583-1645 ce Netherlands

  • The Freedom of the Seas 1609
  • Rights of War and Peace. Books 1-3
  • Commentary On The Law Of Prize And Booty

Edward Herbert of Cherbury 1582-1642 ce England

  • De Veritate 1624

Descartes, René 1596-1650 ce France

  • The World, The Man 1629-1633(1662,1666)
  • Rules for the Direction of the Mind - 1628
  • La Géométrie - 1637
  • Discourse on the Method - 1637
  • Meditations on First Philosophy - 1641
  • Principles of Philosophy - 1644
  • Description of the Human Body 1647
  • Passions of the Soul - 1649

Elisabeth of the Palatinate (of Bohemia) 1618-1680 ce Germany

  • Correspondence with Descartes 1643-1644

Gracián, Baltasar 1601-1658 ce Spain

  • The Hero 1637 - machiavelli criticism
  • The Politician King Ferdinand the Catholic 1640
  • Arte de ingenio 1642 - literature, aesthetics
  • The Complete Gentleman 1646
  • The Art of Worldly Wisdom 1647
  • El Criticón 1651-1657(1681)

Hobbes, Thomas 1588-1679 ce England

  • De Cive - 1642(1647)
  • De Corpore - 1645(1655)
  • Humane Nature, or, The Fundamental Elements of Policy - 1650
  • Leviathan - 1651
  • De Homine - 1658

Arnauld, Antoine 1612-1694 ce France

  • General and Rational Grammar: The Port-Royal Grammar 1660
  • Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole. Logic or the Art of Thinking. 1665-1668
  • La logique, ou, L’art de penser — Logique de Port-Royal
  • Leibniz correspondence. 1686-1687

Cavendish, Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1623-1673 ce England

  • Observations upon Experimental Philosophy 1666
  • Bell in Campo and the Sociable Companions 1662-1668

Spinoza, Baruch 1632-1677 ce Netherlands

  • On the Improvement of the Understanding 1662(1677)
  • The Principles of René Descartes’ Philosophy, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order - 1663
  • Treatise on Theology and Politics - 1670
  • Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order 1677

de La Forge, Louis 1632–1666 ce France

  • Treatise on the Human Mind 1664

Locke, John 1632-1704 ce England/exile

  • Questions Concerning Law of Nature 1664
  • Second Treatise of Government 1689
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding - 1689

Pascal, Blaise 1623-1662 ce France

  • Pensées 1670

Boyle, Robert 1627-1691 ce Ireland

  • The Origin of Forms and Qualities, Part 1 1665
  • The Grounds for and Excellence of the Mechanical Philosophy 1674

Newton, Isaac 1642-1727 ce England

  • Descartes, Space and Body 1666
  • A New Theory of Light and Colours 1671
  • Method of Fluxions 1671-1736 The principia: mathematical principles of natural philosophy 1687-1726. (the authoritative translation. University of California Press. 2016)
  • On the motion of bodies in an orbit 1684
  • Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687
  • Opticks 1704

Malebranche, Nicolas 1638-1715 ce France

  • The Search after Truth: With Elucidations of The Search after Truth 1675
  • Treatise on Nature and Grace 1680
  • Treatise on Ethics 1684

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm ce 1646-1716 ce Germany

  • Freedom and Possibility 1680
  • Meditations on Knowledge, Truth, and Ideas 1684
  • Contingency 1686
  • First Truths 1686
  • Discourse on Metaphysics 1686
  • Arnauld correspondence 1686
  • A New System 1695
  • The Ultimate Origin on Things 1697
  • New Essays on Human Understanding 1704
  • Monadology 1714

Conway, Anne 1631-1679 ce England

Anne Conway: The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge Univetrsity Press. 1690 Anne Conway: A Woman Philosopher

Cockburn, Catharine Trotter 1679-1749 ce England

Catharine Trotter Cockburn: Philosophical Writings. Broadview Press - Catharine Trotter Cockburn. Commentary on Locke 1702, Morality

Wolff, Christian 1679-1754 ce Germany

  • Preliminary discourse on philosophy in general
  • The Law of Nations Treated According to the Scientific Method

Berkeley, George 1685-1753 ce Ireland

  • Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 1710
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous 1713

Buffier, Claude 1661-1737 ce France

  • Traité des premières vérités (Paris: 1724)

Butler, Joseph 1692-1752 ce England

  • Exchange of Letters with Samuel Clarke 1713-1714
  • Preface and Five Sermons from Fifteen Sermons 1726

Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) 1694-1778 ce France

  • The Worldling. 1736
  • Elements of the Philosophy of Newton. 1738
  • Treatise on Tolerance 1763
  • Idées républicaines. 1765
  • Questions/Letters on miracles. 1765

Hutcheson, Francis 1694-1746 ce Scotland

  • Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue - 1725
  • A System of Moral Philosophy 2 vols. 1755

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 1712-1788 ce France

  • The Social Contract 1762

Smith, Adam 1723-1790 ce Scotland

  • The Theory of Moral Sentiments 1759
  • An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776

Reid, Thomas 1710-1796 ce Scotland

  • An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense 1764
  • Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. (Facsimile) 1785
  • Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind 1788

Beattie, James 1735-1803 ce Scotland

  • Essay on the Nature and Immutability of the Truth 1770

Burke, Edmund 1729-1797 ce Ireland

  • Reflections on the Revolution in France 1790

Bentham, Jeremy 1748–1832 ce England

  • Panopticon
  • Utilitarianism and Other Essays
  • An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
  • Of Laws in General 1780
  • Tracts on Poor Laws and Pauper Management
  • The Book of Fallacies: From Unfinished Papers of Jeremy Bentham

Godwin, William 1756-1836 ce England

  • Enquiry Concerning Political Justice 1793 - anarchism, utilitarianism

Marechal (Maréchal), Sylvain 1750-1803 ce France

  • The Festival of Reason 1793
  • Preliminary discourse, or Answer to the question: What is an atheist? - 1799

Wollstonecraft, Mary 1759-1797 ce England

  • A Vindication of the Rights of Woman 1792
  • Frankenstein 1823

Paley, William 1743-1805 ce England

  • Natural Theology 1802
  • The principles of moral and political philosophy 1832

Blake, William 1757-1827 ce England

  • An Island in the Moon 1784
  • There is No Natural Religion 1788
  • All Religions are One 1788
  • Songs of Innocence and of Experience 1789
  • The Book of Thel 1789
  • Tiriel 1789
  • The French Revolution 1791
  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 1790-1793
  • Visions of the Daughters of Albion 1793
  • Continental Prophecies 1793-1795
  • The Book of Urizen 1794
  • The Book of Los 1795
  • The Book of Ahania 1795
  • Vala, or The Four Zoas 1797-1807
  • Milton: A Poem in Two Books 1804-1810
  • Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion 1804-1820


Critical Philosophy & German Idealism Period (c. 1740-1840 ce)

Hume, David 1711-1776 ce Scotland

  • A Treatise of Human Nature 1740
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 1748
  • An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals 1751
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 1750-1779

Herder, Johann Gottfried 1744-1803 ce Germany

  • Another Philosophy of History 1774

Kant, Immanuel 1724-1804 ce Germany

  • The Critique of Pure Reason 1781-1787
  • Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysic - 1783
  • Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals - 1785
  • Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science 1786
  • What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking? (“Was heißt: sich im Denken orientieren?“) 1786
  • Critique of Practical Reason - 1788 (ethics)
  • Critique of Judgment - 1790 (aesthetics)
  • Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone (“Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft”) 1793
  • Toward Perpetual Peace 1795
  • Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (“Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht”) 1798

  • Brief Outline of Certain Meditations on Fire (master’s thesis under Johann Gottfried Teske) 1755

  • The Use in Natural Philosophy of Metaphysics Combined with Geometry, Part I: Physical Monadology (second thesis to obtain associate professorship) 1756

  • The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures 1762

  • The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God 1763

  • Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy 1763

  • On the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Regions in Space 1768

  • Dissertation on the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World (doctoral thesis) 1770

  • Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science 1786

  • Conjectural Beginning of Human History 1786

  • Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch 1795

  • Logic 1800

Jacobi, Carl Gustav Jacob 1743-1819 ce Germany

  • Concerning the Doctrine of Spinoza 1785
  • David Hume on Faith, “Appendix on Transcendental Idealism” 1787
  • Open Letter to Fichte 1799

Reinhold, Karl Leonhard 1757-1823 ce Austria

  • Letters on the Kantian Philosophy 1786-1787

Maimon, Salomon 1753-1800 ce Lithuania

  • Essay on Transcendental Philosophy 1790

Schulze, Gottlob Ernst 1761-1833 ce Germany

  • Aenesidemus 1792

Schiller, Friedrich 1759-1805 ce Germany

  • Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man 1794

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 1762–1814 ce Germany

  • Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation 1792
  • Review of Schulze, Aenesidemus 1794
  • The Science of Knowledge, Foundations of the Entire Science of Knowledge 1794
  • Introductions to the Wissenschaftslehre and Other Writings. Trans. and ed. Daniel Breazeale. Indianapolis, and Cambridge: Hackett - Contains mostly writings from the late Jena period, 1797–1799.
  • Foundations of Natural Right 1797
  • The Vocation of Man, 1800
  • Outline of the Doctrine of Knowledge 1810

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von 1775-1854 ce Germany

  • Of the I as the Principle of Philosophy 1795
  • Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature 1797
  • System of Transcendental Idealism 1800
  • Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom 1809
  • Ages of the World 1811
  • Grounding of Positive Philosophy
  • Philosophy of Mythology 1842

Holderlin (Hölderlin), Johann Christian Friedrich 1770-1843 ce Germany

  • Judgment and Being 1795
  • On the Operations of the Poetic Spirit

Unknown

  • The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism 1796

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 1770-1831 ce Germany

  • The Difference Between Fichte’s and Schelling’s System of Philosophy 1801
  • The Phenomenology of Spirit 1807, trans. A.V. Miller, Oxford University Press
  • Science of Logic - 1812-1816
  • Encyclopedia Logic 1817
  • Philosophy of Right 1820

Schleiermacher, Friedrich 1768-1834 ce Germany

  • The Christian Faith 1830
  • Introductions To The Dialogues Of Plato. 1836
  • Lectures on Philosophical Ethics
  • Hermeneutics and Criticism: And Other Writings 1838
  • Speeches on Religion

Strauss, David 1808-1874 ce Germany

  • The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined 1835

Feuerbach, Ludwig 1804-1872 ce Germany

  • The Essence of Christianity 1841
  • Principles of the Philosophy of the Future. 1843
  • The Fiery Brook: Selected Writings


Neo-Kantian Period (c. 1850-1950 ce)

Helmholtz, Hermann von 1821-1894 ce Germany

  • Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays 1853-1892 (trans. 1995)
  • Epistemological Writings: The Paul Hertz/Moritz Schlick Centenary Edition of 1921 with Notes and Commentary by the Editors. 1854 (trans. 1977)

Lotze, Hermann 1817-1881 ce Germany

  • Lotze’s Outlines of Philosophy - 1884-1887(1882-1884)
  • Logic: In Three Books 1884(1874)
  • Metaphysic: In Three Books 1884(1879)
  • Microcosmus: An Essay Concerning Man and His Relation to the World 1885(1856-1864)

Spir, Afrikan 1837-1890 ce Russia

  • Thought and Reality - 1873

Herbart, Johann Friedrich 1776-1841 ce Germany

  • The Science of Education and the Aesthetic Revelation of the World - 1892

Windelband, Wilhelm 1848-1915 ce Germany

  • A History of Philosophy 1893

Cohen, Hermann 1842-1918 ce Germany

  • Ethics of Maimonides 1908
  • Yearning for Form and Other Essays on Hermann Cohen’s Thought

Cassirer, Ernst 1874-1945 ce Germany

  • Substance and function. Einstein’s theory of relativity 1910-1921
  • Essays on Language, Art, Myth, and Technology 1919-1933
  • The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms Vol. 1: Language 1923
  • The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. 1932
  • Language and Myth 1953
  • The question of Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1954
  • An essay on man: An introduction to a philosophy of human culture 1954
  • The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms: Volume 2: Mythical Thought 1955
  • The Renaissance Philosophy of Man: Petrarca, Valla, Ficino, Pico, Pomponazzi, Vives 1956
  • The Myth of the State 1961
  • Rousseau, Kant, Goethe: Two Essays 1963
  • Logic of Humanities 1966
  • The Problem of Knowledge: Philosophy, Science, and History Since Hegel 1969
  • Kant’s Life and Thought 1983
  • The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy 2000

Vaihinger, Hans 1852-1933 ce Germany

  • philosophy of as if 1911

Rickert, Heinrich 1863-1936 ce Germany

  • The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science 1913

Jaspers, Karl 1883-1969 ce Germany/Switzerland

  • General Psychopathology 1913
  • The origin and goal of history 1953
  • Man in the Modern Age 1957
  • Philosophy 1-3. 1969-1971
  • The question of German guilt
  • Way to Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy
  • Truth and Symbol
  • The Perennial Scope of Philosophy
  • The Idea of the University
  • Philosophy of Existence
  • Nietzsche
  • Philosophy and Psychopathology
  • Plato and Augustine: From The Great Philosophers

Meyerson, Émile 1859-1933 ce France

  • Explanation in the Sciences 1921
  • The Relativistic Deduction: Epistemological Implications of the Theory of Relativity 1925

Hartmann, Nicolai 1882-1950 ce Germany

  • How Is Critical Ontology Possible? Toward the Foundation of the General Theory of the Categories, Part One 1924
  • Possibility and Actuality 1938
  • New Ways of Ontology 1943(1952)
  • German Philosophy in the Last Ten Years 1949
  • Aesthetics 1953
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